School of Education
According to Darling-Hammond (2005), the single most important determinate of what students learn is what their teachers know. We believe it is essential that candidates not only master content knowledge, but also have the pedagogical, professional and technological knowledge required of a knowledgeable scholar. Pedagogical content knowledge refers to teachers' deep knowledge about the processes and practices of teaching and learning applicable to the teaching of specific content (Shulman, 1986). It is the collective wisdom of one's teaching practice with respect to content knowledge, subject expertise, pedagogy, students, and the curriculum (Ball, Thames, & Phelps, 2008; Schartz, 2008). Recent definitions include the integration of technology into pedagogy (Cavanagh & Koehler, 2013; Koehler, M. J. & Mishra P., 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Coined Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, TPCK is the knowledge and skills that teachers need to integrate technology into instruction in specific content areas (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) through rich connections between technology, content and pedagogy (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Technology is infused throughout the SOE conceptual elements. The knowledgeable scholar is also well-versed in professional knowledge that includes knowledge about learning, diversity, professional ethics, legal and policy issues, and the roles and responsibilities of the teaching profession (NCATE/CAEP Glossary).
Drawing from the seminal works of Dewey (1938), Schon (1987) and Zeichner & Liston (1996), Minott (2009) defines reflection as careful consideration; a process of disciplined intellectual criticism combining research; knowledge of context, and balanced judgment (critical thinking) about previous, present, and future actions, events or decisions. Recent literature on reflection (Bradbury. H., Frost, N., Kilminster, S. & Zukas, M. 2009; Thompson & Pascal, 2012) argue for critical reflection that is grounded in the reality of modern social change and an emphasis on reflection as a social practice (McLaughlin & Talbert, 2006) that takes place within communities of teachers who support and sustain each other's growth. Given the evolving perspective on critical reflection, SOE faculty encourage candidates to become socially responsible and critically reflective practitioners by actively participating in school, district, local and global communities.
Effective communication is vital to the role of an educator. The effective communicator is skilled in verbal and nonverbal forms, able to deliver a clear message. Verbal and non-verbal communication affects communication transaction, interpretation, and meaning. Therefore, it is useful to distinguish between the two types. Verbal communication is "any type of spoken communication that uses one or more words" while "nonverbal communication is all of the messages we transmit without words or over and above the words we use" (Tubbs & Moss, 2006, p. 12-13). Skilled in intercultural communications (Sorrells, 2013), the effective communicator understands that cultures have different ways of communicating verbally and non-verbally and seeks to understand how students from different countries and cultures act, communicate, and perceive the world around them.