According to Darling-Hammond (2005), the single most important determinate of what
students learn is what their teachers know. We believe it is essential that candidates
not only master content knowledge, but also have the pedagogical, professional and
technological knowledge required of a knowledgeable scholar. Pedagogical content knowledge
refers to teachers' deep knowledge about the processes and practices of teaching and
learning applicable to the teaching of specific content (Shulman, 1986). It is the
collective wisdom of one's teaching practice with respect to content knowledge, subject
expertise, pedagogy, students, and the curriculum (Ball, Thames, & Phelps, 2008; Schartz,
2008). Recent definitions include the integration of technology into pedagogy (Cavanagh
& Koehler, 2013; Koehler, M. J. & Mishra P., 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Coined
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, TPCK is the knowledge and skills that
teachers need to integrate technology into instruction in specific content areas (Koehler
& Mishra, 2008) through rich connections between technology, content and pedagogy
(Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Technology is infused throughout the SOE conceptual elements.
The knowledgeable scholar is also well-versed in professional knowledge that includes
knowledge about learning, diversity, professional ethics, legal and policy issues,
and the roles and responsibilities of the teaching profession (NCATE/CAEP Glossary).
- KS1. Content Knowledge
- The knowledgeable scholar is skilled in the art and science of learning, in both the
intuitive and research-driven knowledge and practices. These include knowledge of
facts, concepts, and procedures that define a given field and an understanding of
how these pieces fit together and apply to real life situations. Included in this
schema is knowledge about knowledge - where it comes from, how it grows, and how truth
is established (Anderson, 1988).
- KS2. Professional Knowledge/Pedagogical Knowledge
- The knowledgeable scholar is familiar with theories and best practices of teaching
and learning. The scholar proceeds from the background of information available in
the professional literature and acts to appropriately sort out findings and conclusions
for application in the context of practice. Concepts and available theories challenge
the knowledgeable scholar to advance knowledge that is grounded on theory and research.
The knowledgeable scholar has a special blend of knowledge and pedagogy and their
translation to curricular events (Shulman, 1987). The knowledgeable scholar understands
the major concepts that are central to the subjects being taught and can relate the
knowledge of one discipline to another subject matter while being sensitive to cultural
influences within and across cultures (Smith, 1991).
- KS3. Technological Knowledge
- The knowledgeable scholar uses technology to engage in professional development and
continuous learning. The scholar uses technology as teaching and learning tools for
professional growth. The knowledgeable scholar applies technology for effective assessment
and evaluation strategies. Technology resources are utilized to collect and analyze
data, interpret results and communicate findings to improve instructional practices
and maximize student learning.
- KS4. Service Learning/Ethics/Social Responsiveness
- The knowledgeable scholar's role is to serve the local community through the practice
and spirit of collegial sharing. Learning from service strengthens one's "ethic of
care". Serving others helps develop empathy and social responsibility (AACTE, 2002).
The knowledgeable scholar "participates in organized service activities to gain further
understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an
enhanced sense of civic responsibility" (Hatcher, 1995).
The knowledgeable scholar is guided by the ethics of service and professional practice.
The scholar protects and defends human subjects in addition to interacting with others
in the spirit of what is best and appropriate in the context of practice.
The knowledgeable scholar is socially responsible in that he/she "participates actively
in his/her school, district, local and global communities" (Colton & Sparks-Langer,
1993). The knowledgeable scholar is responsive to peoples' needs and interests, and
acts with care and love to bring the best to their lives.
Drawing from the seminal works of Dewey (1938), Schon (1987) and Zeichner & Liston
(1996), Minott (2009) defines reflection as careful consideration; a process of disciplined
intellectual criticism combining research; knowledge of context, and balanced judgment
(critical thinking) about previous, present, and future actions, events or decisions.
Recent literature on reflection (Bradbury. H., Frost, N., Kilminster, S. & Zukas,
M. 2009; Thompson & Pascal, 2012) argue for critical reflection that is grounded in
the reality of modern social change and an emphasis on reflection as a social practice
(McLaughlin & Talbert, 2006) that takes place within communities of teachers who support
and sustain each other's growth. Given the evolving perspective on critical reflection,
SOE faculty encourage candidates to become socially responsible and critically reflective
practitioners by actively participating in school, district, local and global communities.
- RD1. Adaptations and Innovations/Holistic Perspective/ Critical Analysis and Synthesis
- A professional educator is a reflective decision-maker who is thoughtful and has the
disposition to critically "analyze situations, set goals, plan and monitor actions,
evaluate results, and reflect on one's professional thinking" (Colton & Sparks-Langer,
1993). The reflective decision-maker is skilled in adapting to changing situations
and bringing innovations that are relevant, necessary and appropriate to benefit everyone
A reflective decision-maker seeks to understand things in their connected whole and
critically judges matters only after a thorough knowledge of them has been achieved.
He/she is careful not to present concepts without synthesizing them into a coherent
whole for easy and efficient understanding.
Critical analysis and synthesis constitutes yet another very important aspect of the
reflective decision-maker's professional life. Critical analysis involves taking a
critical look at biases, prejudices, discriminations, distortions, and misrepresentations
that may be present in one's attitude, language, teaching approaches, and selection
of learning materials. The reflective decision-maker explores diverse views on a given
subject before drawing conclusions to ensure all perspectives are considered and used.
- RD2. Accountability for Student Learning
- The reflective decision-maker has a high sense of accountability to the public and
the community for the service he/she provides. The reflective decision-maker is responsible
for evidence of what students know and are able to do. He/she uses multiple assessments
to understand and interpret students' total performance.
- RD3. Self Evaluation and Professional Growth
- Self-evaluation is an essential element in the life of a reflective decision-maker.
Self- evaluation involves a critical analysis of one's professional life to determine
where improvement and growth are needed. The reflective decision-maker promotes growth
and change in others, as well as, improvement of self. Self evaluation is a continuous
process aimed at making the professional a better practitioner.
Effective communication is vital to the role of an educator. The effective communicator
is skilled in verbal and nonverbal forms, able to deliver a clear message. Verbal
and non-verbal communication affects communication transaction, interpretation, and
meaning. Therefore, it is useful to distinguish between the two types. Verbal communication
is "any type of spoken communication that uses one or more words" while "nonverbal
communication is all of the messages we transmit without words or over and above the
words we use" (Tubbs & Moss, 2006, p. 12-13). Skilled in intercultural communications
(Sorrells, 2013), the effective communicator understands that cultures have different
ways of communicating verbally and non-verbally and seeks to understand how students
from different countries and cultures act, communicate, and perceive the world around
- EC1. Verbal/Nonverbal Skills/ Language Processes
- The fundamental purpose of verbal and nonverbal forms is to communicate knowledge
and strategies that can be used to help learners become more literate in the subject
area. The effective communicator helps learners become more motivated with skillful
use of verbal and nonverbal forms.
Skilled in verbal and nonverbal forms, the effective communicator is able to deliver
a clear message. He/she uses an appealing medium. The message is what is transmitted
and the medium is how it is transmitted.
The effective communicator uses language processes to enhance learner ability to cope
successfully with subject matter materials. Readence, Bean and Baldwin (2001) believe
that all language processes can be utilized as means to approach learning through
reading, speaking, listening, writing and viewing. Research on writing (Tierney &
Shanahan, 1991) has further pointed out the interconnections between reading and writing
and has suggested that reading be viewed as a composing process. In effect, writing,
listening, and speaking become additional tools to teach content.
The effective communicator uses the receptive language processes of reading and listening
and integrates them with the expressive processes of writing and speaking to continually
promote thinking and learning with content materials.
- EC2. Adaptability
- The effective communicator tailors instruction by adapting presentations to the needs,
abilities and experiential backgrounds of the learners. The inclusion of prior knowledge
into the development of a solid knowledge base is necessary. Thus, learners are encouraged
to bridge what they already know to what they ought to know. The effective communicator
constantly monitors comprehension through various interaction methodologies. Thus,
the effective communicator further clarifies, probes and enhances understanding and
- EC3. Interpersonal Skills
- The effective communicator is committed to the development of positive relationships
with people. He/she is sensitive to learners by creating favorable environments for
learning, recognizes diversity and makes provision for it, and encourages active learner
- EC4. Affective Skills
- The effective communicator displays passion in his/her profession. This passion creates
a climate of understanding and concern for others. This is accomplished by listening
carefully, responding thoughtfully, and presenting a supportive demeanor which encourages
others to express themselves. The effective communicator is caring, emphatic and assertive
without being aggressive or judgmental.
The effective communicator appeals to the whole person. The messages conveyed touch
the mind, heart, spirit and culture of the learners. The message inspires the reflection
to bring about needed changes in attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors. Therefore,
the effective communicator is a caring and skillful professional who applies traditional
and contemporary communication strategies to make a difference in a diverse society.
- Knowledgeable Scholar
- The teacher, counselor, and administrator candidates are knowledgeable about diversity
in the physical, cognitive and social domains.
- Reflective Decision-Maker
- The teacher, counselor, and administrator candidates explore diverse views on a given
subject before drawing conclusions to ensure all perspectives are considered and used.
- Effective Communicator
- The teacher, counselor, and administrator candidates establish communication patterns
that incorporate diverse views.